Verified Commit 4c1e8dd8 authored by el00ruobuob's avatar el00ruobuob
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Moneropedia relocalized

+ correction on Italian Account
+ Removed leftover miners.md (replaced by mining.md)
+ Removed Dust and update Copyright
+ Code improvement to avoid reading the config file and to use the builtin jekyll config variable passed in the content
+ Ammount.md:25/26 glitch "\@transaction-privacy" corrected. PL to be checked twice.
+ Italian ammount.md moneropedia links corrected (terms added to destination entries, unnecessary markdown links removed)
+ Polish corrections
+ extend ruby \word-boundary in regex to match `-based` `-like` `-form`
+ Updated readme according to the new way to add or translate a moneropedia entry
+ fix mining with CryptoNight variant
+ rebased to include AR
+ chery picked #820 to avoid conflicts
parent 20512711
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Blockchain"
terms: ["blockchain", "blockchains"]
summary: "a distributed ledger of all transactions both past and present, without revealing who the funds came from or went to"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A @blockchain is a distributed database that continuously grows with a record of all of the transactions that have occurred with a given cryptocurrency. This database is often referred to as a ledger because the data contains a large list of transactions that have taken place. In Monero, these transactions are packaged together into 'blocks' every 2 minutes (on average) and all miners and nodes on the network have copies of these blocks.
A @blockchain is a distributed database that continuously grows with a record of all of the transactions that have occurred with a given cryptocurrency. This database is often referred to as a ledger because the data contains a large list of transactions that have taken place. In Monero, these transactions are packaged together into 'blocks' every 2 minutes (on average), and all miners and nodes on the network have copies of these blocks.
### Monero's @Blockchain
Unlike Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, transactions in the Monero @blockchain do not reveal where funds came from or went to, providing anonymity and making the currency completely @fungible. Additionally, the amounts of all transactions are hidden by @RingCT, a feature of Monero. For auditing or other transparency purposes a user can share a @view-key to prove they control certain amounts of @Moneroj.
Unlike Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, transactions in the Monero @blockchain do not reveal where funds came from or went to, providing anonymity and making the currency completely @fungible. Additionally, the amounts of all transactions are hidden by @RingCT, a feature of Monero. For auditing or other transparency purposes a user can share a @view-key to prove they control certain amounts of Moneroj.
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Bootstrap-node"
terms: ["bootstrap-node", "bootstrap-nodes"]
summary: "A node to which a daemon connects to give immediate usability to wallets while syncing"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
The daemon running on a local @node has to sync with other (remote) @nodes. While it is not fully synced, @wallet may still be connected to the local node. Therefore, the @wallet cannot access the @blocks that are bot yet synced on the local @node.
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Canonically-unique host"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Canonically-unique-host"]
summary: "A host that is canonically resolved to an address or set of addresses"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A Canonically-unique host is a [FQDN](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FQDN) that will canonically resolve to a designated address or set of addresses. Not to be confused with a @locally-unique-host.
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Change"
terms: ["change"]
summary: "Monero sent as part of a transaction, that returns to your account instead of going to another recipient"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
Monero sent as part of a transaction, that returns to your account instead of going to another recipient.
### More Information
The @wallet in the the Monero software makes change automatically, but when you send a transaction, you are taking an @input that you control and telling the Monero network what to do with it. The @input is a "deposit" to your account that you are able to spend. @Outputs are the part of the transaction that tells the Monero network where to send the funds.
The @wallet in the Monero software makes change automatically, but when you send a transaction, you are taking an input that you control and telling the Monero network what to do with it. The input is a "deposit" to your account that you are able to spend. Outputs are the part of the transaction that tells the Monero network where to send the funds.
You might have multiple inputs in your account, in many different denominations (For example: you deposited 0.5 XMR on Friday, and 0.75 XMR on Saturday). So, when have a transaction with an input of 0.5 XMR, but you only want to send 0.1 XMR, your transaction will include a @fee to pay the @miner, an output for 0.1 XMR to send to the recipient, and the rest that you want to send back to yourself will be an output back to you (this is called "change"). Once the transaction is completed, the change becomes available to you as an input that you can again split and send with a new transaction.
You might have multiple inputs in your account, in many different denominations (For example: you deposited 0.5 XMR on Friday, and 0.75 XMR on Saturday). So, when have a transaction with an input of 0.5 XMR, but you only want to send 0.1 XMR, your transaction will include a fee to pay the @miner, an output for 0.1 XMR to send to the recipient, and the rest that you want to send back to yourself will be an output back to you (this is called "change"). Once the transaction is completed, the change becomes available to you as an input that you can again split and send with a new transaction.
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Clearnet"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Clearnet"]
summary: "The internet in which anonymous overlay networks are built upon"
summary: "The Internet in which anonymous overlay networks are built upon"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
When you use the internet for things like news, email, social media, and even Monero, you are most likely using a clearnet connection. This means that *all* of your connections can be tracked, traced, and monitored by:
When you use the Internet for things like news, email, social media, and even Monero, you are most likely using a clearnet connection. This means that *all* of your connections can be tracked, traced, and monitored by:
- your [ISP](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISP)
- the website/service/person you're communicating with
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Coinbase Transaction"
terms: ["coinbase-transaction"]
summary: "a special type of transaction included in each block, which contains a small amount of Monero sent to the miner as a reward for their mining work"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
\ No newline at end of file
A special type of transaction included in each block, which contains a small amount of Monero sent to the miner as a reward for their mining work.
\ No newline at end of file
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Consensus"
terms: ["consensus", "consensus-network"]
summary: "consensus describes a property of distributed networks like Monero where most of the participants follow the rules, and thus reject bad participants"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
\ No newline at end of file
Consensus describes a property of distributed networks like Monero where most of the participants follow the rules, and thus reject bad participants.
\ No newline at end of file
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Cryptocurrency"
terms: ["cryptocurrency", "cryptocurrencies", "altcoin", "altcoins"]
summary: "a digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, usually operating independently of a central bank"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
A digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, usually operating independently of a central bank.
### More Information
Cryptocurrency is the generic term for a large set of digital assets that use encryption techniques to generate units of currency, verify the transactions, and transfer value. Generally, cryptocurrencies are considered to be decentralized. Cryptocurrency should not be confused with virtual currency which is a type of digital money that is usually controlled by it's creators or developers. (Some examples of virtual currency are gametime in World of Warcraft, ROBUX in Roblox, reward points programs, or Ripple, all of which can be exchanged for currency or cash value, but are not considered cryptocurrency because they are centalized and controlled/issued by a single entity).
Cryptocurrency is the generic term for a large set of digital assets that use encryption techniques to generate units of currency, verify the transactions, and transfer value. Generally, cryptocurrencies are considered to be decentralized. Cryptocurrency should not be confused with virtual currency which is a type of digital money that is usually controlled by its creators or developers. Some examples of virtual currency are gametime in World of Warcraft, ROBUX in Roblox, reward points programs, or Ripple, all of which can be exchanged for currency or cash value, but are not considered cryptocurrency because they are centalized and controlled/issued by a single entity.
Monero is one of many cryptocurrencies currently available. Other examples are Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Dash, Zcash, etc, but nearly all other cryptocurrencies lack features that make them a true money (most importantly @fungability which is a requirement for it to be a @store-of-value).
Monero is one of many cryptocurrencies currently available. Other examples are Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Dash, Zcash, etc, but nearly all other cryptocurrencies lack features that make them a true money (most importantly @fungibility which is a requirement for it to be a store-of-value).
Not all cryptocurrencies operate the same, but they usually share the properties of @decentralization, encryption, and the ability to send and receive transactions. Most are irreversible, pseudonymous, global, and permissionless. Most aim to be a @store-of-value or be digital cash that allows you to transact.
Not all cryptocurrencies operate the same, but they usually share the properties of decentralization, encryption, and the ability to send and receive transactions. Most are irreversible, pseudonymous, global, and permissionless. Most aim to be a store-of-value or be digital cash that allows you to transact.
Most cryptocurrencies (including Monero) use a distributed ledger (called a @blockchain) to keep track of previous transactions . The blockchain serves to tell other users on the network that transactions have happened. There are many different ways for cryptocurrencies to create their blockchain, and not all are the same. Monero uses @proof-of-work to craft blocks, where other cryptocurrencies may use proof-of-stake or other consolidated methods.
Most cryptocurrencies (including Monero) use a distributed ledger (called a @blockchain) to keep track of previous transactions. The blockchain serves to tell other users on the network that transactions have happened. There are many different ways for cryptocurrencies to create their blockchain, and not all are the same. Monero uses proof-of-work to craft blocks, where other cryptocurrencies may use proof-of-stake or other consolidated methods.
Ultimately, cryptocurrency is an attempt to create @trustless value; that is free from borders, governments, and banks. Whether that be to transact or to be digital gold is up to the users of each.
Ultimately, cryptocurrency is an attempt to create trustless value; that is free from borders, governments, and banks. Whether that be to transact or to be digital gold is up to the users of each.
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Data Directory"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Data-Directory"]
summary: "Where essential kovri data for runtime is stored"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
Depending on your OS, @Kovri currently stores all run-time data in the following directory:
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Denominations"
terms: ["denominations", "subunits", "tacoshi", "piconero", "nanonero", "micronero", "millinero", "centinero", "decinero","decanero","hectonero","kilonero","meganero","giganero"]
summary: "A denomination is a proper description of a currency amount. It is oftentimes a sub-unit of the currency. For example, traditionally a cent is 1/100th of a particular unit of currency.)"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
A denomination is a proper description of a currency amount. It is oftentimes a sub-unit of the currency. For example, traditionally a cent is 1/100th of a particular unit of currency.).
Monero denomination names add SI prefixes after dropping the initial "mo" for ease of use. Actually, the smallest unit of Monero is 1 piconero (0.000000000001 XMR).
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Destination"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Destination", "Destinations"]
summary: "A in-net address that serves as a final endpoint (either local or remote)"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A @destination is the @I2P @in-net address of the final endpoint you are trying to connect to (example: an @I2P website, service, or Monero node). This can also include a *local destination* of which *other* peers need to connect to in order to make contact for communication (similar to how, in @clearnet, your IP address is given to a website when you connect so it knows *where* to send the information back to).
### In-depth Information
An @I2P destination can be encoded into a @base32-address or @base64-address. Most users will only care about @base32-address or a `.i2p` hostname while, internally, @Kovri / @I2P @address-book uses @base64-addresses. Ultimately, all @destinations in @I2P are 516-byte (or longer) keys:
An @I2P destination can be encoded into a @base32-address or @base64-address. Most users will only care about @base32-addresses or a `.i2p` hostname while, internally, @Kovri / @I2P @address-book uses @base64-addresses. Ultimately, all @destinations in @I2P are 516-byte (or longer) keys:
`256-byte public key + 128-byte signing key + a null certificate = 516 bytes in Base64 representation`
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Eepsite"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Eepsite", "Hidden-Service", "Garlic-Site", "Garlic-Service"]
summary: "A website or service hosted within the I2P network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
Is it [**EEP!** *(in response to the site's content)*](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onomatopoeia), or **end-to-end protocol**, or something else entirely different?
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Encryption"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["encryption", "encrypted", "encrypting", "decryption", "decrypted", "decrypting"]
summary: "The process of encoding messages or information in a way that only authorized parties can decode and read"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
From [Encryption](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption):
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Floodfill"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Floodfill"]
summary: "An I2P router which maintains a distributed network-database"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
By actively managing a distributed network-database, a router with *floodfill* capability has the ability to help maintain network stability and resiliancy while also being decentralized and trust-less.
......
---
entry: "Fluffy Blocks"
terms: ["fluffy blocks", "fluffyblocks"]
summary: "a way of saving bandwidth when sending new blocks around the network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A @block is made up of a header and @transactions. Fluffy Blocks only contain
a header, a list of transaction indices, and any transactions that the node
recieving the block may be missing. This saves bandwidth because nodes might
already know about most or all of the transactions in the block and they don't
need to be sent them again.
### See Also
* [BIP152 "Compact Block Relay"](https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0152.mediawiki)
* [Xthin](https://github.com/BitcoinUnlimited/BitcoinUnlimited/blob/release/doc/bu-xthin-protocol.md)
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Fungibility"
terms: ["fungibility"]
terms: ["fungibility", "fungible"]
summary: "property of a currency whereby two units can be substituted in place of one another"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
Fungibility means that two units of a currency can be mutually substituted and the substituted currency is equal to another unit of the same size. For example, two $10 bills can be exchanged and they are functionally identical to any other $10 bills in circulation (although $10 bills have unique ID numbers and are therefore not completely fungible). Gold is probably a closer example of true fungibility, where any 1 oz. of gold of the same grade is worth the same as another 1 oz of gold. Monero is fungible due to the nature of the currency which provides no way to link transactions together nor trace the history of any particular XMR. 1 XMR is functionally identical to any other 1 XMR.
Property of a currency whereby two units can be substituted in place of one another.
Fungibility is an advantage Monero has over Bitcoin and almost every other cryptocurrency, due to the privacy inherent in the Monero @blockchain and the permanently traceable nature of the Bitcoin blockchain. With Bitcoin, any BTC can be tracked by anyone back to it's creation @coinbase-transaction. Therefore, if a coin has been used for an illegal purpose in the past, this history will be contained in the @blockchain in perpetuity. This lack of fungibility means that certain businesses will be obligated to avoid accepting BTC that have been previously used for purposes which are illegal, or simply run afoul of their Terms of Service. Currently some large Bitcoin companies are blocking, suspending, or closing accounts that have received Bitcoin used in online gambling or other purposes deemed unsavory by said companies.
Fungibility means that two units of a currency can be mutually substituted and the substituted currency is equal to another unit of the same size. For example, two $10 bills can be exchanged and they are functionally identical to any other $10 bill in circulation (although $10 bills have unique ID numbers and are therefore not completely fungible). Gold is probably a closer example of true fungibility, where any 1 oz. of gold of the same grade is worth the same as another 1 oz. of gold. Monero is fungible due to the nature of the currency which provides no way to link transactions together nor trace the history of any particular XMR. 1 XMR is functionally identical to any other 1 XMR.
Monero has been built specifically to address the problem of traceability and non-fungability inherent in other cryptocurrencies. By having completely private transactions Monero is truly fungible and there can be no blacklisting of certain XMR, while at the same time providing all the benefits of a secure, decentralized, permanent blockchain.
Fungibility is an advantage Monero has over Bitcoin and almost every other cryptocurrency, due to the privacy inherent in the Monero @blockchain and the permanently traceable nature of the Bitcoin blockchain. With Bitcoin, any BTC can be tracked by anyone back to its creation @coinbase-transaction. Therefore, if a coin has been used for an illegal purpose in the past, this history will be contained in the @blockchain in perpetuity. This lack of fungibility means that certain businesses will be obligated to avoid accepting BTC that have been previously used for purposes which are illegal, or simply run afoul of their Terms of Service. Currently some large Bitcoin companies are blocking, suspending, or closing accounts that have received Bitcoin used in online gambling or other purposes deemed unsavory by said companies.
Monero has been built specifically to address the problem of traceability and non-fungibility inherent in other cryptocurrencies. By having completely private transactions Monero is truly fungible and there can be no blacklisting of certain XMR, while at the same time providing all the benefits of a secure, decentralized, permanent blockchain.
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Garlic-Encryption"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Garlic-Encryption", "Layered-Encryption"]
summary: "Layered encryption as implemented in Kovri / I2P"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
@garlic-encryption is @I2P's implementation of @message based @layered-encryption (similar to flow-based [Onion-Routing](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion_routing)).
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Garlic Routing"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Garlic-Routing"]
summary: "Routing technology as implemented in Kovri"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
The term *@garlic-routing* has a diverse history of varying interpretations. As it currently stands, Monero defines *@garlic-routing* as the method in which @Kovri and @I2P create a @message-based anonymous overlay network of internet peers.
The term *@garlic-routing* has a diverse history of varying interpretations. As it currently stands, Monero defines *@garlic-routing* as the method in which @Kovri and @I2P create a @message-based anonymous overlay network of Internet peers.
The @Garlic-Encryption of @Garlic-Routing is similar to the @Layered-Encryption of [Onion Routing](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion_routing) and effectively conceals the IP address of the sender and secures information sent from the sender to its @destination (and vice-versa).
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "I2NP"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["I2NP"]
summary: "The I2P Network Protocol: the mechanism in which I2NP messages are sent over the I2P network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
From @Java-I2P:
......
---
layout: moneropedia
entry: "I2P"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["I2P"]
summary: "The Invisible Internet Project: an anonymizing overlay network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### Monero
For Monero's implementation of @I2P, see @Kovri. For a comparison of @I2P to [Tor](https://torproject.org/), read the [Comparison](https://geti2p.net/en/comparison/tor) page.
......
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