Commit b1c6762e authored by Riccardo Spagni's avatar Riccardo Spagni Committed by GitHub
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Merge pull request #376 from QuickBASIC/text-add-2

Expand Moneropedia stubs
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layout: moneropedia
entry: "Change"
terms: ["change"]
summary: "Monero sent as part of a transaction, but unique in that returns to your account instead of going to a recipient"
summary: "Monero sent as part of a transaction, that returns to your account instead of going to another recipient"
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### The Basics
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### More Information
The @wallet in the the Monero software makes change automatically, but when you send a transaction, you are taking an @input that you control and telling the Monero network what to do with it. The @input is a "deposit" to your account that you are able to spend. @Outputs are the part of the transaction that tells the Monero network where to send the funds.
You might have multiple inputs in your account, in many different denominations (For example: you deposited 0.5 XMR on Friday, and 0.75 XMR on Saturday). So, when have a transaction with an input of 0.5 XMR, but you only want to send 0.1 XMR, your transaction will include a @fee to pay the @miner, an output for 0.1 XMR to send to the recipient, and the rest that you want to send back to yourself will be an output back to you (this is called "change"). Once the transaction is completed, the change becomes available to you as an input that you can again split and send with a new transaction.
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layout: moneropedia
entry: "Cryptocurrency"
terms: ["cryptocurrency", "cryptocurrencies", "altcoin", "altcoins"]
summary: "digital currencies that do not have a central point of control, operating in a distributed peer-to-peer network"
summary: "a digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, usually operating independently of a central bank"
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### The Basics
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### More Information
Cryptocurrency is the generic term for a large set of digital assets that use encryption techniques to generate units of currency, verify the transactions, and transfer value. Generally, cryptocurrencies are considered to be decentralized. Cryptocurrency should not be confused with virtual currency which is a type of digital money that is usually controlled by it's creators or developers. (Some examples of virtual currency are gametime in World of Warcraft, ROBUX in Roblox, reward points programs, or Ripple, all of which can be exchanged for currency or cash value, but are not considered cryptocurrency because they are centalized and controlled/issued by a single entity).
Monero is one of many cryptocurrencies currently available. Other examples are Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Dash, Zcash, etc, but nearly all other cryptocurrencies lack features that make them a true money (most importantly @fungability which is a requirement for it to be a @store-of-value).
Not all cryptocurrencies operate the same, but they usually share the properties of @decentralization, encryption, and the ability to send and receive transactions. Most are irreversible, pseudonymous, global, and permissionless. Most aim to be a @store-of-value or be digital cash that allows you to transact.
Most cryptocurrencies (including Monero) use a distributed ledger (called a @blockchain) to keep track of previous transactions . The blockchain serves to tell other users on the network that transactions have happened. There are many different ways for cryptocurrencies to create their blockchain, and not all are the same. Monero uses @proof-of-work to craft blocks, where other cryptocurrencies may use proof-of-stake or other consolidated methods.
Ultimately, cryptocurrency is an attempt to create @trustless value; that is free from borders, governments, and banks. Whether that be to transact or to be digital gold is up to the users of each.
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### The Basics
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### More Information
Nodes participate in the Monero network and secure @transactions by enforcing the rules of the network. Nodes download the entire @blockchain to know what transactions have taken place. Nodes assist the network by relaying transactions to other nodes on the network. Nodes may also choose contribute to the Monero network by participating in crafting @blocks (this is called @mining).
Mining is the process by which nodes create a block from the previously accepted block, transactions that are waiting to be processed in the @tx-pool, and the @coinbase. When a node believes it has crafted a valid block it will transmit the completed block to other nodes on the network and those nodes signal agreement by working on the next block in the chain.
The rules that nodes follow are built into the Monero software; When all nodes agree about the rules to follow this is called @consensus). Consensus is necessary for a cryptocurrency because it is how the blockchain is built; If nodes don't agree about which blocks are valid, for example people who have not updated their Monero software, those nodes that don't agree will no longer be able to participate in the Monero network.
The Monero Core Team plans for a @hardforks every 6 months, to occur in September and March of each year. At that time, if you are running a node it must be updated to the most recent version of the Monero software or it will no longer be able to participate in the network.
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##### Other Resources
<sub>1. *Fluffypony gives a great explanation of why mandatory hardforks are good for Monero.* ([Monero Missives for the Week of 2016-06-20](https://getmonero.org/2016/06/20/monero-missive-for-the-week-of-2016-06-20.html))</sub>
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