Fix other stuff I didn't like / was incorrect

Sorry for throwing everything into one commit, splitting my changes
to individual will probably take ages.
parent 0934f8a2
......@@ -10,4 +10,4 @@ summary: "a distributed ledger of all transactions both past and present, withou
A @blockchain is a distributed database that continuously grows with a record of all of the transactions that have occurred with a given cryptocurrency. This database is often referred to as a ledger because the data contains a large list of transactions that have taken place. In Monero, these transactions are packaged together into 'blocks' every 2 minutes (on average) and all miners and nodes on the network have copies of these blocks.
### Monero's @Blockchain
Unlike Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, transactions in the Monero @blockchain do not reveal where funds came from or went to, providing anonymity and making the currency completely @fungible. Additionally, the amounts of all transactions are hidden by @RingCT, a feature of Monero. For auditing or other transparency purposes a user can share a @view-key to prove they control certain amounts of @Moneroj.
Unlike Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, transactions in the Monero @blockchain do not reveal where funds came from or went to, providing anonymity and making the currency completely [fungible](fungibility). Additionally, the amounts of all transactions are hidden by @RingCT, a feature of Monero. For auditing or other transparency purposes a user can share a @view-key to prove they control certain amounts of Moneroj.
......@@ -11,6 +11,6 @@ summary: "Monero sent as part of a transaction, that returns to your account ins
### More Information
The @wallet in the Monero software makes change automatically, but when you send a transaction, you are taking an @input that you control and telling the Monero network what to do with it. The @input is a "deposit" to your account that you are able to spend. @Outputs are the part of the transaction that tells the Monero network where to send the funds.
The @wallet in the Monero software makes change automatically, but when you send a transaction, you are taking an input that you control and telling the Monero network what to do with it. The input is a "deposit" to your account that you are able to spend. Outputs are the part of the transaction that tells the Monero network where to send the funds.
You might have multiple inputs in your account, in many different denominations (For example: you deposited 0.5 XMR on Friday, and 0.75 XMR on Saturday). So, when have a transaction with an input of 0.5 XMR, but you only want to send 0.1 XMR, your transaction will include a @fee to pay the @miner, an output for 0.1 XMR to send to the recipient, and the rest that you want to send back to yourself will be an output back to you (this is called "change"). Once the transaction is completed, the change becomes available to you as an input that you can again split and send with a new transaction.
You might have multiple inputs in your account, in many different denominations (For example: you deposited 0.5 XMR on Friday, and 0.75 XMR on Saturday). So, when have a transaction with an input of 0.5 XMR, but you only want to send 0.1 XMR, your transaction will include a fee to pay the @miner, an output for 0.1 XMR to send to the recipient, and the rest that you want to send back to yourself will be an output back to you (this is called "change"). Once the transaction is completed, the change becomes available to you as an input that you can again split and send with a new transaction.
......@@ -11,12 +11,12 @@ summary: "a digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate
### More Information
Cryptocurrency is the generic term for a large set of digital assets that use encryption techniques to generate units of currency, verify the transactions, and transfer value. Generally, cryptocurrencies are considered to be decentralized. Cryptocurrency should not be confused with virtual currency which is a type of digital money that is usually controlled by it's creators or developers. (Some examples of virtual currency are gametime in World of Warcraft, ROBUX in Roblox, reward points programs, or Ripple, all of which can be exchanged for currency or cash value, but are not considered cryptocurrency because they are centalized and controlled/issued by a single entity).
Cryptocurrency is the generic term for a large set of digital assets that use encryption techniques to generate units of currency, verify the transactions, and transfer value. Generally, cryptocurrencies are considered to be decentralized. Cryptocurrency should not be confused with virtual currency which is a type of digital money that is usually controlled by its creators or developers. Some examples of virtual currency are gametime in World of Warcraft, ROBUX in Roblox, reward points programs, or Ripple, all of which can be exchanged for currency or cash value, but are not considered cryptocurrency because they are centalized and controlled/issued by a single entity.
Monero is one of many cryptocurrencies currently available. Other examples are Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Dash, Zcash, etc, but nearly all other cryptocurrencies lack features that make them a true money (most importantly @fungability which is a requirement for it to be a @store-of-value).
Monero is one of many cryptocurrencies currently available. Other examples are Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Dash, Zcash, etc, but nearly all other cryptocurrencies lack features that make them a true money (most importantly @fungibility which is a requirement for it to be a store-of-value).
Not all cryptocurrencies operate the same, but they usually share the properties of @decentralization, encryption, and the ability to send and receive transactions. Most are irreversible, pseudonymous, global, and permissionless. Most aim to be a @store-of-value or be digital cash that allows you to transact.
Not all cryptocurrencies operate the same, but they usually share the properties of decentralization, encryption, and the ability to send and receive transactions. Most are irreversible, pseudonymous, global, and permissionless. Most aim to be a store-of-value or be digital cash that allows you to transact.
Most cryptocurrencies (including Monero) use a distributed ledger (called a @blockchain) to keep track of previous transactions . The blockchain serves to tell other users on the network that transactions have happened. There are many different ways for cryptocurrencies to create their blockchain, and not all are the same. Monero uses @proof-of-work to craft blocks, where other cryptocurrencies may use proof-of-stake or other consolidated methods.
Most cryptocurrencies (including Monero) use a distributed ledger (called a @blockchain) to keep track of previous transactions. The blockchain serves to tell other users on the network that transactions have happened. There are many different ways for cryptocurrencies to create their blockchain, and not all are the same. Monero uses proof-of-work to craft blocks, where other cryptocurrencies may use proof-of-stake or other consolidated methods.
Ultimately, cryptocurrency is an attempt to create @trustless value; that is free from borders, governments, and banks. Whether that be to transact or to be digital gold is up to the users of each.
Ultimately, cryptocurrency is an attempt to create trustless value; that is free from borders, governments, and banks. Whether that be to transact or to be digital gold is up to the users of each.
......@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ A @destination is the @I2P @in-net address of the final endpoint you are trying
### In-depth Information
An @I2P destination can be encoded into a @base32-address or @base64-address. Most users will only care about @base32-address or a `.i2p` hostname while, internally, @Kovri / @I2P @address-book uses @base64-addresses. Ultimately, all @destinations in @I2P are 516-byte (or longer) keys:
An @I2P destination can be encoded into a @base32-address or @base64-address. Most users will only care about @base32-addresses or a `.i2p` hostname while, internally, @Kovri / @I2P @address-book uses @base64-addresses. Ultimately, all @destinations in @I2P are 516-byte (or longer) keys:
`256-byte public key + 128-byte signing key + a null certificate = 516 bytes in Base64 representation`
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......@@ -7,10 +7,11 @@ summary: "property of a currency whereby two units can be substituted in place o
### The Basics
Fungibility means that two units of a currency can be mutually substituted and the substituted currency is equal to another unit of the same size. For example, two $10 bills can be exchanged and they are functionally identical to any other $10 bills in circulation (although $10 bills have unique ID numbers and are therefore not completely fungible). Gold is probably a closer example of true fungibility, where any 1 oz. of gold of the same grade is worth the same as another 1 oz of gold. Monero is fungible due to the nature of the currency which provides no way to link transactions together nor trace the history of any particular XMR. 1 XMR is functionally identical to any other 1 XMR.
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Fungibility is an advantage Monero has over Bitcoin and almost every other cryptocurrency, due to the privacy inherent in the Monero @blockchain and the permanently traceable nature of the Bitcoin blockchain. With Bitcoin, any BTC can be tracked by anyone back to it's creation @coinbase-transaction. Therefore, if a coin has been used for an illegal purpose in the past, this history will be contained in the @blockchain in perpetuity. This lack of fungibility means that certain businesses will be obligated to avoid accepting BTC that have been previously used for purposes which are illegal, or simply run afoul of their Terms of Service. Currently some large Bitcoin companies are blocking, suspending, or closing accounts that have received Bitcoin used in online gambling or other purposes deemed unsavory by said companies.
Fungibility means that two units of a currency can be mutually substituted and the substituted currency is equal to another unit of the same size. For example, two $10 bills can be exchanged and they are functionally identical to any other $10 bill in circulation (although $10 bills have unique ID numbers and are therefore not completely fungible). Gold is probably a closer example of true fungibility, where any 1 oz. of gold of the same grade is worth the same as another 1 oz. of gold. Monero is fungible due to the nature of the currency which provides no way to link transactions together nor trace the history of any particular XMR. 1 XMR is functionally identical to any other 1 XMR.
Monero has been built specifically to address the problem of traceability and non-fungability inherent in other cryptocurrencies. By having completely private transactions Monero is truly fungible and there can be no blacklisting of certain XMR, while at the same time providing all the benefits of a secure, decentralized, permanent blockchain.
Fungibility is an advantage Monero has over Bitcoin and almost every other cryptocurrency, due to the privacy inherent in the Monero @blockchain and the permanently traceable nature of the Bitcoin blockchain. With Bitcoin, any BTC can be tracked by anyone back to its creation @coinbase-transaction. Therefore, if a coin has been used for an illegal purpose in the past, this history will be contained in the @blockchain in perpetuity. This lack of fungibility means that certain businesses will be obligated to avoid accepting BTC that have been previously used for purposes which are illegal, or simply run afoul of their Terms of Service. Currently some large Bitcoin companies are blocking, suspending, or closing accounts that have received Bitcoin used in online gambling or other purposes deemed unsavory by said companies.
Monero has been built specifically to address the problem of traceability and non-fungibility inherent in other cryptocurrencies. By having completely private transactions Monero is truly fungible and there can be no blacklisting of certain XMR, while at the same time providing all the benefits of a secure, decentralized, permanent blockchain.
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......@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ summary: "An API inteface for Kovri and Java-I2P that allows simple remote contr
### The Basics
@I2Pcontrol is [JSONRPC2](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON-RPC) [API](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programming_interface) for @Kovri and @Java-I2P which allows an @I2PControl client to remote control/monitor a running instance.
@I2Pcontrol is a [JSONRPC2](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON-RPC) [API](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programming_interface) for @Kovri and @Java-I2P which allows an @I2PControl client to remote control/monitor a running instance.
Two available @I2PControl clients are: [qtoopie](https://github.com/EinMByte/qtoopie) (C++ client) and [itoopie](https://github.com/i2p/i2p.itoopie) (Java client). Read `kovri.conf` to configure @I2PControl for @Kovri.
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......@@ -7,14 +7,12 @@ summary: "the process of cryptographically computing a mathematical proof for a
### The Basics
Mining is the distributed process of confirming transactions on the public ledger of all transactions, aka @blockchain. Monero nodes use the block chain to distinguish legitimate transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere.
Monero is powered strictly by Proof of Work. It employs a mining algorithm that has the potential to be efficiently tasked to billions of existing devices (any modern x86 CPU and many GPU's). Monero uses the @CryptoNight Proof of Work (@PoW) algorithm, which is designed for use in ordinary CPUs and GPUs.
The smart mining feature allows transparent CPU mining on the user's computer, far from the de facto centralization of mining farms and pool mining, pursuing Satoshi Nakamoto's original vision of a true P2P currency.
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
As of June 2017, botnets made of hacked computers account for a not-insignificant portion of the miners on the Monero network. This is due to the profitability of mining on CPUs via the @CryptoNight algorithm.
Mining is the distributed process of confirming transactions on the public ledger of all transactions, aka @blockchain. Monero nodes use the blockchain to distinguish legitimate transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere.
Monero is powered strictly by Proof of Work. It employs a mining algorithm that has the potential to be efficiently tasked to billions of existing devices (any modern x86 CPU and many GPUs). Monero uses the CryptoNight Proof of Work (PoW) algorithm, which is designed for use in ordinary CPUs and GPUs.
The smart mining feature allows transparent CPU mining on the user's computer, far from the de facto centralization of mining farms and pool mining, pursuing Satoshi Nakamoto's original vision of a true P2P currency.
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
As of June 2017, botnets made of hacked computers account for a not-insignificant portion of the miners on the Monero network. This is due to the profitability of mining on CPUs via the CryptoNight algorithm.
......@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Mnemonic Seed"
terms: ["mnemonic-seed", "mnemonic"]
summary: "a 13 or 25 word phrase used to backup a Monero account, available in a number of languages"
summary: "a 13 or 25 word phrase used to back up a Monero account, available in a number of languages"
---
### The Basics
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......@@ -11,13 +11,13 @@ summary: "a device on the Internet running the Monero software, with a full copy
### More Information
Nodes participate in the Monero network and secure @transactions by enforcing the rules of the network. Nodes download the entire @blockchain to know what transactions have taken place. Nodes assist the network by relaying transactions to other nodes on the network. Nodes may also choose contribute to the Monero network by participating in crafting @blocks (this is called @mining).
Nodes participate in the Monero network and secure @transactions by enforcing the rules of the network. Nodes download the entire @blockchain to know what transactions have taken place. Nodes assist the network by relaying transactions to other nodes on the network. Nodes may also choose to contribute to the Monero network by participating in crafting @blocks (this is called @mining).
Mining is the process by which nodes create a block from the previously accepted block, transactions that are waiting to be processed in the @tx-pool, and the @coinbase. When a node believes it has crafted a valid block it will transmit the completed block to other nodes on the network and those nodes signal agreement by working on the next block in the chain.
Mining is the process by which nodes create a block from the previously accepted block, transactions that are waiting to be processed in the Transaction Pool, and the @coinbase-transaction. When a node believes it has crafted a valid block it will transmit the completed block to other nodes on the network and those nodes signal agreement by working on the next block in the chain.
The rules that nodes follow are built into the Monero software; When all nodes agree about the rules to follow this is called @consensus). Consensus is necessary for a cryptocurrency because it is how the blockchain is built; If nodes don't agree about which blocks are valid, for example people who have not updated their Monero software, those nodes that don't agree will no longer be able to participate in the Monero network.
The rules that nodes follow are built into the Monero software; When all nodes agree about the rules to follow this is called @consensus. Consensus is necessary for a cryptocurrency because it is how the blockchain is built; If nodes don't agree about which blocks are valid, for example people who have not updated their Monero software, those nodes that don't agree will no longer be able to participate in the Monero network.
The Monero Core Team plans for a @hardforks every 6 months, to occur in September and March of each year. At that time, if you are running a node it must be updated to the most recent version of the Monero software or it will no longer be able to participate in the network.
The Monero Core Team plans for a hardfork every 6 months, to occur in September and March of each year. At that time, if you are running a node it must be updated to the most recent version of the Monero software or it will no longer be able to participate in the network.
---
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......@@ -11,15 +11,17 @@ Payment ID is an **arbitrary** and **optional** transaction attachment that cons
The Payment ID is usually used to identify transactions to merchants and exchanges: Given the intrinsic privacy features built into Monero, where a single public address is usually used for incoming transactions, the Payment ID is especially useful to tie incoming payments with user accounts.
### Compact Payment ID's and Integrated Addresses
### Compact Payment IDs and Integrated Addresses
Since the 0.9 Hydrogen Helix version, the Payment IDs can be encrypted and embedded in a payment address. The payment ID's of this type should be 64-bits and are encrypted with a random one-time key known only to the sender and receiver.
Since the 0.9 Hydrogen Helix version, Payment IDs can be encrypted and embedded in a payment address. The Payment IDs of this type should be 64-bits and are encrypted with a random one-time key known only to the sender and receiver.
### Creating a Payment ID
It is recommended to use the official wallet's `integrated_address` command to automatically generate Integrated Addresses that contain Compact Payment ID's. If you want to use the command line, you can generate Payment ID's as follows:
It is recommended to use the official wallet's `integrated_address` command to automatically generate Integrated Addresses that contain Compact Payment IDs. If you want to use the command line, you can generate Payment IDs as follows:
Creating a compact Payment ID for an Integrated Address:
```# openssl rand -hex 8```
Creating an old-style Payment ID:
```# openssl rand -hex 32```
......@@ -2,11 +2,13 @@
layout: moneropedia
entry: "Pedersen Commitment"
terms: ["commitments", "commitment", "pedersen"]
summary: "Pedersen commitments are cryptographic algorythms that allow a prover to commit to a certain value without revealing it or being able to change it."
summary: "Pedersen commitments are cryptographic algorythms that allow a prover to commit to a certain value without revealing it or being able to change it"
---
### The Basics
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
When you spend Monero, the value of the inputs that you are spending and the value of the outputs you are sending are encrypted and opaque to everyone except the recipient of each of those outputs. Pedersen commitments allow you to send Monero without revealing the value of the transactions. Pedersen commitments also make it possible for people to verify that transactions on the blockchain are valid and not creating Monero out of thin air.
### What It Means
......@@ -15,10 +17,8 @@ As long as the encrypted output amounts created, which include an output for the
Pedersen commitments mean that the sums can be verified as being equal, but the Monero value of each of the sums and the Monero value of the inputs and outputs individually are undeterminable. Pedersen commitments also mean that even the ratio of one input to another, or one output to another is undeterminable.
Even though it's unclear which inputs are really being spent (the ring signature lists both the real inputs being spent and decoy inputs therefore you don't actually know which input Pedersen commitments you need to sum) that's okay, because the RingCT ring signature only has to prove is that for one combination of the inputs the outputs are equal to the sum of the inputs. For mathematical reasons, this is impossible to forge.
It is unclear which inputs are really being spent as the ring signature lists both the real inputs being spent and decoy inputs, therefore you don't actually know which input Pedersen commitments need to be summed up. That's okay, because the @RingCT ring signature only has to prove that for one combination of the inputs the outputs are equal to the sum of the inputs. For mathematical reasons, this is impossible to forge.
### In-depth Information
See information in [Ring Confidential Transactions paper](https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098.pdf) by Shen Noether of the Monero Research Lab.
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
......@@ -10,15 +10,6 @@ RingCT, short for Ring Confidential Transactions, is how transaction amounts are
Ring CT was implemented in block #1220516 in January 2017. After September 2017, this feature became mandatory for all transactions on the network.
RingCT introduces an improved version of @ring-signatures called A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature, which allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation.
RingCT introduces an improved version of @ring-signatures called "A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature", which allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation.
For more information, please read the creator Shen Noether's paper [here](https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098).
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
......@@ -13,6 +13,6 @@ For instance, a ring signature could be used to provide an anonymous signature f
### Application to Monero
A ring signature makes use of your @account keys and a number of public keys (also known as outputs) pulled from the @blockchain using a triangular distribution method. Over the course of time, past outputs could be used multiple times to form possible signer participants. In a "ring" of possible signers, all ring members are equal and valid. There is no way an outside observer can tell which of the possible signers in a signature group belongs to your @account. So, ring signatures ensure that transaction outputs are untraceable. Moreover, there are no fungibility issues with Monero given that every transaction output has plausible deniability (e.g. the network can not tell which outputs are spent or unspent).
A ring signature makes use of your @account keys and a number of public keys (also known as outputs) pulled from the @blockchain using a triangular distribution method. Over the course of time, past outputs could be used multiple times to form possible signer participants. In a "ring" of possible signers, all ring members are equal and valid. There is no way an outside observer can tell which of the possible signers in a signature group belongs to your @account. So, ring signatures ensure that transaction outputs are untraceable. Moreover, there are no @fungibility issues with Monero given that every transaction output has plausible deniability (e.g. the network can not tell which outputs are spent or unspent).
To read how Monero gives you privacy by default (unlinkability), see @stealth-addresses.
\ No newline at end of file
......@@ -7,11 +7,9 @@ summary: "a process of having a throttled miner mine when it otherwise does not
### The Basics
Smart mining is the process of having a throttled miner mine when it otherwise does not cause drawbacks.
Smart mining is the process of having a throttled @miner mine when it otherwise does not cause drawbacks.
Drawbacks include increases heat, slower machine, depleting battery, etc. The intent of smart mining is to increase network security by allowing as many people as possible to let the smart miner on all the time. For this to work, the miner must prove unobtrusive, or it will be turned off, depriving the Monero network from a little bit of security. As such, it is likely that a smart miner will mine slower than a normal miner on the same hardware.
Smart mining is available in the official CLI and GUI wallet, which are available in the [downloads page](https://getmonero.org/downloads/).
It is hoped that the relative slowness of a smart miner (especially on low-power machines) will be offset by the large amount of people running a miner for a possible "lottery win", and thus increase the Monero network security by a non trivial amount. The increased hash rate from many different sources helps keep the Monero network decentralized.
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......@@ -11,6 +11,6 @@ Monero block rewards will never drop to zero. Block rewards will gradually drop
### Why
Miners need an incentive to mine. Because of the dynamic blocksize, competition between miners will cause fees to decrease. If mining is not profitable due to a high cost and low reward, miners lose their incentive and will stop mining, reducing the security of the network.
Miners need an incentive to mine. Because of the dynamic blocksize, competition between @miners will cause fees to decrease. If mining is not profitable due to a high cost and low reward, miners lose their incentive and will stop mining, reducing the security of the network.
Tail emission ensures that a dynamic block size and fee market can develop.
......@@ -9,7 +9,9 @@ summary: "a cryptographically signed container that details the transfer of Mone
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
The parameters of a transaction contain one or more recipient addresses with corresponding amounts of funds and a `mixin_count` parameter that specifies the number of foreign outputs bound to the transaction. The more outputs that are used, a higher degree of obfuscation is possible, but that comes with a cost. Since a transaction gets larger with more outputs, the transaction fee would be higher. It is possible to form a transaction offline, which is a huge benefit for privacy.
The parameters of a transaction contain one or more recipient addresses with corresponding amounts of funds and a `mixin_count` parameter that specifies the number of foreign outputs bound to the transaction (see @ring-size). The more outputs that are used, a higher degree of obfuscation is possible, but that comes with a cost. Since a transaction gets larger with more outputs, the transaction fee will be higher.
It is possible to form a transaction offline, which is a huge benefit for privacy.
A transaction can be uniquely identified with the use of an optional Transaction ID, which is usually represented by a 32-byte string (64 hexadecimal characters).
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......@@ -7,10 +7,8 @@ summary: "one of two sets of private and public cryptographic keys that each acc
### The Basics
Monero features an opaque blockchain (with an explicit allowance system called the @view-key), in sharp contrast with transparent blockchains used by any other cryptocurrency not based on @CryptoNote. Thus, Monero is said to be "private, optionally transparent".
Every Monero address has a private viewkey which can be shared. By sharing a viewkey a person is allowing access to view every incoming transaction for that address. However, outgoing transactions cannot be reliably viewed as of June 2017. Therefore the balance of a Monero address as shown via a viewkey should not be relied upon.
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
Monero features an opaque blockchain (with an explicit allowance system called the @view-key), in sharp contrast with transparent blockchains used by any other cryptocurrency not based on CryptoNote. Thus, Monero is said to be "private, optionally transparent".
{{ page.summary | capitalize }}.
Every Monero address has a private viewkey which can be shared. By sharing a viewkey a person is allowing access to view every incoming transaction for that address. However, outgoing transactions cannot be reliably viewed as of June 2017. Therefore the balance of a Monero address as shown via a viewkey should not be relied upon.
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