Unverified Commit f79e092a authored by luigi1111's avatar luigi1111 Committed by GitHub
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Merge pull request #800 from 3b7ameed/arabic

add arabic localization
parents 53758e39 4d56ed05
---
entry: "Change"
terms: ["change"]
summary: "Monero sent as part of a transaction, that returns to your account instead of going to another recipient"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
Monero sent as part of a transaction, that returns to your account instead of going to another recipient.
### More Information
The @wallet in the Monero software makes change automatically, but when you send a transaction, you are taking an input that you control and telling the Monero network what to do with it. The input is a "deposit" to your account that you are able to spend. Outputs are the part of the transaction that tells the Monero network where to send the funds.
You might have multiple inputs in your account, in many different denominations (For example: you deposited 0.5 XMR on Friday, and 0.75 XMR on Saturday). So, when have a transaction with an input of 0.5 XMR, but you only want to send 0.1 XMR, your transaction will include a fee to pay the @miner, an output for 0.1 XMR to send to the recipient, and the rest that you want to send back to yourself will be an output back to you (this is called "change"). Once the transaction is completed, the change becomes available to you as an input that you can again split and send with a new transaction.
---
entry: "Clearnet"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Clearnet"]
summary: "The Internet in which anonymous overlay networks are built upon"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
When you use the Internet for things like news, email, social media, and even Monero, you are most likely using a clearnet connection. This means that *all* of your connections can be tracked, traced, and monitored by:
- your [ISP](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISP)
- the website/service/person you're communicating with
- possibly a [Five Eyes](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5_Eyes) capable entity
and even if you use [HTTPS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTPS) or similar (which *encrypts* your transmission), your route is not hidden nor is it anonymous, thus; it is in the *clear*.
### In-depth information
Since a traditional [VPN](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VPN) cannot save you from clearnet (as you are still using *clearnet* (though you are more proxied than without a VPN)), you should use an *anonymous overlay network* to avoid using clearnet directly:
- @Kovri
- @Java-I2P
- [Tor](https://torproject.org/)
These technologies protect you from clearnet by building an anonymous network **over** clearnet to keep your transmissions both encrypted **and** anonymous.
Here is an accurate, [interactive diagram](https://www.eff.org/pages/tor-and-https) provided by the [EFF](https://www.eff.org/) which describes *clearnet* as it relates to **Tor**. The concept also (somewhat) applies to @Kovri and @I2P in terms of anonymity with the exception that:
- @Kovri does not use exit nodes when connecting to an @eepsite
- Your traffic never need to leave the @I2P network
- You do not need HTTPS to use @Kovri (with the exception of @reseed)
---
entry: "Coinbase Transaction"
terms: ["coinbase-transaction"]
summary: "a special type of transaction included in each block, which contains a small amount of Monero sent to the miner as a reward for their mining work"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A special type of transaction included in each block, which contains a small amount of Monero sent to the miner as a reward for their mining work.
\ No newline at end of file
---
entry: "Consensus"
terms: ["consensus", "consensus-network"]
summary: "consensus describes a property of distributed networks like Monero where most of the participants follow the rules, and thus reject bad participants"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
Consensus describes a property of distributed networks like Monero where most of the participants follow the rules, and thus reject bad participants.
\ No newline at end of file
---
entry: "Cryptocurrency"
terms: ["cryptocurrency", "cryptocurrencies", "altcoin", "altcoins"]
summary: "a digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, usually operating independently of a central bank"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, usually operating independently of a central bank.
### More Information
Cryptocurrency is the generic term for a large set of digital assets that use encryption techniques to generate units of currency, verify the transactions, and transfer value. Generally, cryptocurrencies are considered to be decentralized. Cryptocurrency should not be confused with virtual currency which is a type of digital money that is usually controlled by its creators or developers. Some examples of virtual currency are gametime in World of Warcraft, ROBUX in Roblox, reward points programs, or Ripple, all of which can be exchanged for currency or cash value, but are not considered cryptocurrency because they are centalized and controlled/issued by a single entity.
Monero is one of many cryptocurrencies currently available. Other examples are Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Dash, Zcash, etc, but nearly all other cryptocurrencies lack features that make them a true money (most importantly @fungibility which is a requirement for it to be a store-of-value).
Not all cryptocurrencies operate the same, but they usually share the properties of decentralization, encryption, and the ability to send and receive transactions. Most are irreversible, pseudonymous, global, and permissionless. Most aim to be a store-of-value or be digital cash that allows you to transact.
Most cryptocurrencies (including Monero) use a distributed ledger (called a @blockchain) to keep track of previous transactions. The blockchain serves to tell other users on the network that transactions have happened. There are many different ways for cryptocurrencies to create their blockchain, and not all are the same. Monero uses proof-of-work to craft blocks, where other cryptocurrencies may use proof-of-stake or other consolidated methods.
Ultimately, cryptocurrency is an attempt to create trustless value; that is free from borders, governments, and banks. Whether that be to transact or to be digital gold is up to the users of each.
---
entry: "Data Directory"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Data-Directory"]
summary: "Where essential kovri data for runtime is stored"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
Depending on your OS, @Kovri currently stores all run-time data in the following directory:
- Linux/FreeBSD:
- `$HOME/.kovri`
- OSX:
- `$HOME/Library/Application\ Support/Kovri`
- Windows:
- `"$APPDATA"\\Kovri`
This includes all configuration files, @address-book, certificates, and resources.
---
entry: "Denominations"
terms: ["denominations", "subunits", "tacoshi", "piconero", "nanonero", "micronero", "millinero", "centinero", "decinero","decanero","hectonero","kilonero","meganero","giganero"]
summary: "A denomination is a proper description of a currency amount. It is oftentimes a sub-unit of the currency. For example, traditionally a cent is 1/100th of a particular unit of currency.)"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A denomination is a proper description of a currency amount. It is oftentimes a sub-unit of the currency. For example, traditionally a cent is 1/100th of a particular unit of currency.).
Monero denomination names add SI prefixes after dropping the initial "mo" for ease of use. Actually, the smallest unit of Monero is 1 piconero (0.000000000001 XMR).
### Denominations of Monero
|------------+----------+-------------------|
| Name | Base 10 | Amount |
|-----------:|:--------:| -----------------:|
| piconero | 10^-12 | 0.000000000001 |
| nanonero | 10^-9 | 0.000000001 |
| micronero | 10^-6 | 0.000001 |
| millinero | 10^-3 | 0.001 |
| centinero | 10^-2 | 0.01 |
| decinero | 10^-1 | 0.1 |
|============+==========+===================|
| **monero** | **10^0** | **1** |
|============+==========+===================|
| decanero | 10^1 | 10 |
| hectonero | 10^2 | 100 |
| kilonero | 10^3 | 1,000 |
| meganero | 10^6 | 1,000,000 |
|------------+----------+-------------------|
### In-depth Information
Support for input using SI prefixes was [added to the Monero codebase](https://github.com/monero-project/monero/pull/1826) on March 3, 2017 by [Moneromooo](https://github.com/moneromooo-monero). The smallest unit of Monero (10^-12 XMR) was originally called a tacoshi in honor of user [Tacotime](https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=19270), an early Monero contributor and was later renamed for ease of use and consistancy.
### Monerod Implementation
The smallest fraction of Monero in the current monerod implementation is also known as the @atomic-unit, which is currently one piconero.
---
entry: "Destination"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Destination", "Destinations"]
summary: "A in-net address that serves as a final endpoint (either local or remote)"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A @destination is the @I2P @in-net address of the final endpoint you are trying to connect to (example: an @I2P website, service, or Monero node). This can also include a *local destination* of which *other* peers need to connect to in order to make contact for communication (similar to how, in @clearnet, your IP address is given to a website when you connect so it knows *where* to send the information back to).
### In-depth Information
An @I2P destination can be encoded into a @base32-address or @base64-address. Most users will only care about @base32-addresses or a `.i2p` hostname while, internally, @Kovri / @I2P @address-book uses @base64-addresses. Ultimately, all @destinations in @I2P are 516-byte (or longer) keys:
`256-byte public key + 128-byte signing key + a null certificate = 516 bytes in Base64 representation`
Note: certificates are not used now but, if they were, the keys would be longer.
---
entry: "Eepsite"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Eepsite", "Hidden-Service", "Garlic-Site", "Garlic-Service"]
summary: "A website or service hosted within the I2P network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
Is it [**EEP!** *(in response to the site's content)*](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onomatopoeia), or **end-to-end protocol**, or something else entirely different?
While the original definition of eepsite has been lost with time, its use-case remains: an eepsite is a website or service that is hosted within (and only accessible by) the @I2P network.
### In-depth Information
Alternate names include:
1. *Hidden Service*
- because the site/service is *hidden* within the @I2P network and can only be visited within the network
2. *Garlic Site*
- because the website utilizes @I2P's @garlic-routing technology as a means of communicating with a client
- because the service is hosted as a website and not any other type of service
3. *Garlic Service*
- because the service utilizes @I2P's @garlic-routing technology as a means of communicating with a client
- because the service is specific to services like IRC, email, or a Monero peer (but may also include websites)
### Notes
To learn how to setup an Eepsite (Hidden Service, Garlic Site, Garlic Service) visit the @Kovri [user-guide](https://github.com/monero-project/kovri/blob/master/doc/USER_GUIDE.md).
---
entry: "Encryption"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["encryption", "encrypted", "encrypting", "decryption", "decrypted", "decrypting"]
summary: "The process of encoding messages or information in a way that only authorized parties can decode and read"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
From [Encryption](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption):
>
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can decode and read what is sent. Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message content to the interceptor.
### In-depth information
From [Encryption](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption):
>
In an encryption scheme, the intended communication information or message (referred to as *plaintext*), is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, generating ciphertext that can only be read if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, large computational resources and skill are required. An authorized recipient can easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients, but not to unauthorized interceptors.
>
The purpose of encryption is to ensure that only somebody who is authorized to access data (e.g. a text message or a file), will be able to read it, using the decryption key. Somebody who is not authorized can be excluded, because he or she does not have the required key, without which it is impossible to read the encrypted information.
### Kovri
@Kovri implements various types of encryption in *at least* 4 essential capacities:
- @Reseed for bootstrapping
- @Garlic-routing: three layers of encryption (@garlic-encryption) are used to verify the secure delivery of @messages to the recipient/peer/@destination
- @Tunnel encryption: garlic messages are passed through a @tunnel and encrypted by the @tunnel gateway to the @tunnel endpoint
- @Transport layer encryption prevents the ability to decrypt @messages at the [media layer](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model)
For details on the types of encryption and cryptographic @signatures used in @Kovri and @I2P, visit @Java-I2P's [Cryptography](https://geti2p.net/spec/cryptography)
---
entry: "Floodfill"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Floodfill"]
summary: "An I2P router which maintains a distributed network-database"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
By actively managing a distributed network-database, a router with *floodfill* capability has the ability to help maintain network stability and resiliancy while also being decentralized and trust-less.
### In-depth information
Though floodfill itself is a simple storage system, the technical underpinnings of floodfill as it relates to @network-database and other protocols within @I2P are much more complex. Visit the [Network Database](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/how/network-database) page for details.
---
entry: "Fluffy Blocks"
terms: ["fluffy blocks", "fluffyblocks"]
summary: "a way of saving bandwidth when sending new blocks around the network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
A @block is made up of a header and @transactions. Fluffy Blocks only contain
a header, a list of transaction indices, and any transactions that the node
recieving the block may be missing. This saves bandwidth because nodes might
already know about most or all of the transactions in the block and they don't
need to be sent them again.
### See Also
* [BIP152 "Compact Block Relay"](https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0152.mediawiki)
* [Xthin](https://github.com/BitcoinUnlimited/BitcoinUnlimited/blob/release/doc/bu-xthin-protocol.md)
---
entry: "Fungibility"
terms: ["fungibility", "fungible"]
summary: "property of a currency whereby two units can be substituted in place of one another"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
Property of a currency whereby two units can be substituted in place of one another.
Fungibility means that two units of a currency can be mutually substituted and the substituted currency is equal to another unit of the same size. For example, two $10 bills can be exchanged and they are functionally identical to any other $10 bill in circulation (although $10 bills have unique ID numbers and are therefore not completely fungible). Gold is probably a closer example of true fungibility, where any 1 oz. of gold of the same grade is worth the same as another 1 oz. of gold. Monero is fungible due to the nature of the currency which provides no way to link transactions together nor trace the history of any particular XMR. 1 XMR is functionally identical to any other 1 XMR.
Fungibility is an advantage Monero has over Bitcoin and almost every other cryptocurrency, due to the privacy inherent in the Monero @blockchain and the permanently traceable nature of the Bitcoin blockchain. With Bitcoin, any BTC can be tracked by anyone back to its creation @coinbase-transaction. Therefore, if a coin has been used for an illegal purpose in the past, this history will be contained in the @blockchain in perpetuity. This lack of fungibility means that certain businesses will be obligated to avoid accepting BTC that have been previously used for purposes which are illegal, or simply run afoul of their Terms of Service. Currently some large Bitcoin companies are blocking, suspending, or closing accounts that have received Bitcoin used in online gambling or other purposes deemed unsavory by said companies.
Monero has been built specifically to address the problem of traceability and non-fungibility inherent in other cryptocurrencies. By having completely private transactions Monero is truly fungible and there can be no blacklisting of certain XMR, while at the same time providing all the benefits of a secure, decentralized, permanent blockchain.
---
entry: "Garlic-Encryption"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Garlic-Encryption", "Layered-Encryption"]
summary: "Layered encryption as implemented in Kovri / I2P"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
@garlic-encryption is @I2P's implementation of @message based @layered-encryption (similar to flow-based [Onion-Routing](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion_routing)).
By @encrypting @messages in layers, this allows a @message to be routed through a sequence of proxies without allowing the proxies (or any intermediaries) to read the contents of the @message. @Layered-Encryption is a fundamental feature in @Kovri, @I2P, and [Tor](https://torproject.org) and is the cornerstone for securing anonymity within these overlay-networks.
### In-depth information
For @garlic-encryption, the primary difference between @Kovri/@I2P and Tor is:
- @Kovri/@I2P bundles multiple @messages together to form garlic "cloves"
- any number of messages can be contained in a "clove" instead of *only* a single message
- @Kovri/@I2P uses [ElGamal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ElGamal)/[AES](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Encryption_Standard) @encryption for @messages and @transports
### Notes
For details, see @garlic-routing.
---
entry: "Garlic Routing"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Garlic-Routing"]
summary: "Routing technology as implemented in Kovri"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
The term *@garlic-routing* has a diverse history of varying interpretations. As it currently stands, Monero defines *@garlic-routing* as the method in which @Kovri and @I2P create a @message-based anonymous overlay network of Internet peers.
The @Garlic-Encryption of @Garlic-Routing is similar to the @Layered-Encryption of [Onion Routing](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion_routing) and effectively conceals the IP address of the sender and secures information sent from the sender to its @destination (and vice-versa).
### History
In written form, the term *@garlic-routing* can be seen as early as June of 2000 in Roger Dingledine's [Free Haven Master's thesis](http://www.freehaven.net/papers.html) (Section 8.1.1) as derived from the term Onion Routing.
As recent as October of 2016, [#tor-dev](https://oftc.net/WebChat/) has offered insight into the creation of the term *@garlic-routing*:
[Nick Mathewson](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tor_Project,_Inc):
>[I think that there was some attempt to come up with a plant whose structure resembled the 'leaky-pipe' topology of tor, but I don't believe we ever settled on one.]
[Roger Dingledine](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Dingledine):
>during the free haven brainstorming, there was a moment where we described a routing mechanism, and somebody said "garlic routing!", and everybody laughed.
so we for sure thought we had invented the name, at the time.
*Note: permission to use the aforementioned quotes was granted by Nick Mathewson and Roger Dingledine*
### In-depth Information
In technical terms, for @Kovri and @I2P, *@garlic-routing* translates to any/all of the following:
- @Layered-Encryption (similar to the @layered-encryption in Onion Routing)
- Bundling multiple @messages together (garlic cloves)
- ElGamal/AES @encryption
*Note: though [Tor](https://torproject.org/) uses @layered-encryption, Tor does not use ElGamal and is not message-based.*
**Read more in @garlic-encryption.**
### Notes
- In terms of Onion/Garlic Routing, another way to envision layered @encryption is by replacing the onion/garlic with a [Matryoshka doll](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matryoshka_doll) - with each outer/inner doll having a lock and public key to the next/previous doll
- For more technical details on Garlic Routing, read the @Java-I2P entry on [Garlic Routing](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/how/garlic-routing)
---
entry: "I2NP"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["I2NP"]
summary: "The I2P Network Protocol: the mechanism in which I2NP messages are sent over the I2P network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
From @Java-I2P:
>
@I2NP manages the routing and mixing of messages between routers, as well as the selection of what transports to use when communicating with a peer for which there are multiple common transports supported
### In-depth information
From @Java-I2P:
>
@I2NP (@I2P Network Protocol) @messages can be used for one-hop, router-to-router, point-to-point @messages. By @encrypting and wrapping @messages in other @messages, they can be sent in a secure way through multiple hops to the ultimate @destination. @I2NP does not specify nor require any particular @transport layer but does require at least one @transport in use.
>
Whenever a @destination wants to send a message to to another @destination, it provides its local router with both the @destination structure and the raw bytes of the message to be sent. The router then determines where to send it, delivers it through outbound @tunnels, instructing the end point to pass it along to the appropriate inbound @tunnel, where it is passed along again to that @tunnel's end point and made available to the target for reception.
### Notes
Read more about the @I2NP [protocol](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/protocol/i2np) and [specification](https://geti2p.net/spec/i2np).
---
entry: "I2P"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["I2P"]
summary: "The Invisible Internet Project: an anonymizing overlay network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### Monero
For Monero's implementation of @I2P, see @Kovri. For a comparison of @I2P to [Tor](https://torproject.org/), read the [Comparison](https://geti2p.net/en/comparison/tor) page.
### The Basics
From @Java-I2P:
>The I2P network provides strong privacy protections for communication over the Internet. Many activities that would risk your privacy on the public Internet can be conducted anonymously inside I2P.
### In-depth information
From @Java-I2P:
>I2P is an anonymous overlay network - a network within a network. It is intended to protect communication from dragnet surveillance and monitoring by third parties such as ISPs.
>I2P is used by many people who care about their privacy: activists, oppressed people, journalists and whistleblowers, as well as the average person.
>No network can be "perfectly anonymous". The continued goal of I2P is to make attacks more and more difficult to mount. Its anonymity will get stronger as the size of the network increases and with ongoing academic review.
### Notes
@I2P documentation and specifications are available [here](https://geti2p.net/docs/).
---
entry: "I2PControl"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["I2PControl"]
summary: "An API inteface for Kovri and Java-I2P that allows simple remote control"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
@I2Pcontrol is a [JSONRPC2](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON-RPC) [API](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programming_interface) for @Kovri and @Java-I2P which allows an @I2PControl client to remote control/monitor a running instance.
Two available @I2PControl clients are: [qtoopie](https://github.com/EinMByte/qtoopie) (C++ client) and [itoopie](https://github.com/i2p/i2p.itoopie) (Java client). Read `kovri.conf` to configure @I2PControl for @Kovri.
### In-depth information
Details and specification available on the [I2PControl](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/api/i2pcontrol) page.
---
entry: "In-net"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["In-net"]
summary: "Within the I2P network"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
**In-net** is a [colloquial](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colloquial) term of which describes activities, protocols, or functionality that exist *only* within the @I2P network.
### In-depth information
Example: *in-net download* would be defined as downloading *only* within @I2P.
---
entry: "Java I2P"
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Java-I2P"]
summary: "The original implementation of I2P - written in Java"
---
{% include untranslated.html %}
### The Basics
The term "Java I2P" is often used to describe the original @I2P implementation currently most known and used today. There are various other @I2P implementations, including @Kovri; all of which look up to the original Java implementation.
### Notes
To download/learn more about the Java implementation, visit their [website](https://geti2p.net/).
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