Commit 7e66fb0c authored by Edwin den Boer's avatar Edwin den Boer Committed by luigi1111
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Dutch translation - User guides

parent 101b114d
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Garlic-Encryption", "Layered-Encryption"]
summary: "Layered encryption as implemented in Kovri / I2P"
---
### The Basics
@garlic-encryption is @I2P's implementation of @message based @layered-encryption (similar to flow-based [Onion-Routing](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion_routing)).
By @encrypting @messages in layers, this allows a @message to be routed through a sequence of proxies without allowing the proxies (or any intermediaries) to read the contents of the @message. @Layered-Encryption is a fundamental feature in @Kovri, @I2P, and [Tor](https://torproject.org) and is the cornerstone for securing anonymity within these overlay-networks.
### In-depth information
For @garlic-encryption, the primary difference between @Kovri/@I2P and Tor is:
- @Kovri/@I2P bundles multiple @messages together to form garlic "cloves"
- any number of messages can be contained in a "clove" instead of *only* a single message
- @Kovri/@I2P uses [ElGamal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ElGamal)/[AES](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Encryption_Standard) @encryption for @messages and @transports
### Notes
For details, see @garlic-routing.
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Garlic-Routing"]
summary: "Routing technology as implemented in Kovri"
---
### The Basics
The term *@garlic-routing* has a diverse history of varying interpretations. As it currently stands, Monero defines *@garlic-routing* as the method in which @Kovri and @I2P create a @message-based anonymous overlay network of Internet peers.
The @Garlic-Encryption of @Garlic-Routing is similar to the @Layered-Encryption of [Onion Routing](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion_routing) and effectively conceals the IP address of the sender and secures information sent from the sender to its @destination (and vice-versa).
### History
In written form, the term *@garlic-routing* can be seen as early as June of 2000 in Roger Dingledine's [Free Haven Master's thesis](http://www.freehaven.net/papers.html) (Section 8.1.1) as derived from the term Onion Routing.
As recent as October of 2016, [#tor-dev](https://oftc.net/WebChat/) has offered insight into the creation of the term *@garlic-routing*:
[Nick Mathewson](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tor_Project,_Inc):
>[I think that there was some attempt to come up with a plant whose structure resembled the 'leaky-pipe' topology of tor, but I don't believe we ever settled on one.]
[Roger Dingledine](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Dingledine):
>during the free haven brainstorming, there was a moment where we described a routing mechanism, and somebody said "garlic routing!", and everybody laughed.
so we for sure thought we had invented the name, at the time.
*Note: permission to use the aforementioned quotes was granted by Nick Mathewson and Roger Dingledine*
### In-depth Information
In technical terms, for @Kovri and @I2P, *@garlic-routing* translates to any/all of the following:
- @Layered-Encryption (similar to the @layered-encryption in Onion Routing)
- Bundling multiple @messages together (garlic cloves)
- ElGamal/AES @encryption
*Note: though [Tor](https://torproject.org/) uses @layered-encryption, Tor does not use ElGamal and is not message-based.*
**Read more in @garlic-encryption.**
### Notes
- In terms of Onion/Garlic Routing, another way to envision layered @encryption is by replacing the onion/garlic with a [Matryoshka doll](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matryoshka_doll) - with each outer/inner doll having a lock and public key to the next/previous doll
- For more technical details on Garlic Routing, read the @Java-I2P entry on [Garlic Routing](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/how/garlic-routing)
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["I2NP"]
summary: "The I2P Network Protocol: the mechanism in which I2NP messages are sent over the I2P network"
---
### The Basics
From @Java-I2P:
>
@I2NP manages the routing and mixing of messages between routers, as well as the selection of what transports to use when communicating with a peer for which there are multiple common transports supported
### In-depth information
From @Java-I2P:
>
@I2NP (@I2P Network Protocol) @messages can be used for one-hop, router-to-router, point-to-point @messages. By @encrypting and wrapping @messages in other @messages, they can be sent in a secure way through multiple hops to the ultimate @destination. @I2NP does not specify nor require any particular @transport layer but does require at least one @transport in use.
>
Whenever a @destination wants to send a message to to another @destination, it provides its local router with both the @destination structure and the raw bytes of the message to be sent. The router then determines where to send it, delivers it through outbound @tunnels, instructing the end point to pass it along to the appropriate inbound @tunnel, where it is passed along again to that @tunnel's end point and made available to the target for reception.
### Notes
Read more about the @I2NP [protocol](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/protocol/i2np) and [specification](https://geti2p.net/spec/i2np).
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["I2P"]
summary: "The Invisible Internet Project: an anonymizing overlay network"
---
### Monero
For Monero's implementation of @I2P, see @Kovri. For a comparison of @I2P to [Tor](https://torproject.org/), read the [Comparison](https://geti2p.net/en/comparison/tor) page.
### The Basics
From @Java-I2P:
>The I2P network provides strong privacy protections for communication over the Internet. Many activities that would risk your privacy on the public Internet can be conducted anonymously inside I2P.
### In-depth information
From @Java-I2P:
>I2P is an anonymous overlay network - a network within a network. It is intended to protect communication from dragnet surveillance and monitoring by third parties such as ISPs.
>I2P is used by many people who care about their privacy: activists, oppressed people, journalists and whistleblowers, as well as the average person.
>No network can be "perfectly anonymous". The continued goal of I2P is to make attacks more and more difficult to mount. Its anonymity will get stronger as the size of the network increases and with ongoing academic review.
### Notes
@I2P documentation and specifications are available [here](https://geti2p.net/docs/).
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["I2PControl"]
summary: "An API inteface for Kovri and Java-I2P that allows simple remote control"
---
### The Basics
@I2Pcontrol is a [JSONRPC2](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON-RPC) [API](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programming_interface) for @Kovri and @Java-I2P which allows an @I2PControl client to remote control/monitor a running instance.
Two available @I2PControl clients are: [qtoopie](https://github.com/EinMByte/qtoopie) (C++ client) and [itoopie](https://github.com/i2p/i2p.itoopie) (Java client). Read `kovri.conf` to configure @I2PControl for @Kovri.
### In-depth information
Details and specification available on the [I2PControl](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/api/i2pcontrol) page.
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["In-net"]
summary: "Within the I2P network"
---
### The Basics
**In-net** is a [colloquial](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colloquial) term of which describes activities, protocols, or functionality that exist *only* within the @I2P network.
### In-depth information
Example: *in-net download* would be defined as downloading *only* within @I2P.
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Java-I2P"]
summary: "The original implementation of I2P - written in Java"
---
### The Basics
The term "Java I2P" is often used to describe the original @I2P implementation currently most known and used today. There are various other @I2P implementations, including @Kovri; all of which look up to the original Java implementation.
### Notes
To download/learn more about the Java implementation, visit their [website](https://geti2p.net/).
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Jump-Service"]
summary: "An I2P website service that adds addresses to your address book"
---
### The Basics
In your @I2P configured web browser, you can use a Jump Service to *jump* to an @I2P address that you don't have in your @address-book. Once you've *jumped* to the address, the address will be saved into your @address-book.
### In-depth Information
In an @I2P configured browser, visit: http://stats.i2p/i2p/lookup.html (courtesy of @Java-I2P's lead developer *zzz*)
Then, you'll have two options:
1. *Hostname lookup* the address you wish to visit and then manually copy/paste the result
2. *Jump* to the @I2P website by entering the @I2P hostname (**recommended**)
### Using hostname lookup
For example, entering `pinkpaste.i2p` into the *Hostname lookup* box (and then submitting) will return:
```
pinkpaste.i2p=m-HrPrIAsdxts0WM~P4mE8mt9P7g-QTaBvu7Gc6Nl0UX7Vwck-i~RvOPfK6W~kfdRvwhNTqevkBL2UF5l36We02Aiywu7kB2xOHRkze68h-Tg2ewvRVwokohguCD2G3wwAEz~7FVda2avYDCb9-N6TfuzxKLnmhPMvbNSjGL7ZsD2p-h207R3-2kvuMV9bfu-K~w9NI9XJhIyufvUnFYc2jnTVg8PbaR4UP57cNaOO2YIMPkbr6~yTcIu9B1sUfHK6-N~6virQDOxW4M-62rjnZkLpaCtkOsXslmCwZI--TkZ6hKi1kXZvNmJRE1rYfffYRFn38zhaqszeETX8HiIvahZhXF5fNumBziYdmLdw8hkuN1A~emU6Xz9g~a1Ixfsq1Qr~guYoOtaw-0rOFxNRS9yMehE-2LCb8c-cAg6z5OdlN4qJDl~ZHgru4d~EHp~BpAK3v7u2Gi-8l1ygVW-1CHVna~fwnbOPN3ANPwh6~~yUit0Cx1f54XiNRn6-nPBQAEAAcAAA==
```
Copy/paste this [email protected] pairing into your **private** @subscription.
### Directly jumping
For example, entering `pinkpaste.i2p` into the *Jump* box (and then submitting) will automatically redirect you to the website **and** insert the @locally-unique-host into @address-book.
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Kovri"]
summary: "Monero's C++ router implementation of the I2P network"
---
### The Basics
[Kovri](https://gitlab.com/kovri-project/kovri/) is a C++ implementation of the @I2P network. @Kovri is currently in heavy, active development and not yet integrated with Monero. When Kovri is integrated into your Monero @node, your transactions will be more secure than ever before.
### In-depth information
Kovri will protect you and Monero from:
- @Node partitioning attacks
- Associations between a particular txid and your IP address
- Mining and/or running a node in highly adversarial environments
- Metadata leakage (e.g., @OpenAlias lookups)
...and much more.
Read [anonimal's FFS proposal](https://forum.getmonero.org/9/work-in-progress/86967/anonimal-s-kovri-full-time-development-funding-thread) for more details and for reasoning behind the project. Also read the FAQ and User Guide in the [Kovri repository](https://gitlab.com/kovri-project/kovri/).
### @Kovri / @I2P Terminology
#### Client + API
- @Address-Book
- @Base32-address
- @Base64-address
- @Canonically-unique-host
- @Eepsite (@Hidden-Service, @Garlic-Site, @Garlic-Service)
- @I2PControl
- @Jump-Service
- @Locally-unique-host
- @Reseed
- @Subscription
#### Core + Router
- @Clearnet
- @Data-Directory
- @Destination
- @Encryption
- @Floodfill
- @Garlic-Encryption
- @Garlic-Routing
- @I2NP
- @In-net
- @Java-I2P
- @Layered-Encryption
- @Lease
- @LeaseSet
- @Message @Messages
- @NTCP
- @Network-Database
- @Router-Info
- @SSU
- @Transports
- @Tunnel
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["LeaseSet", "LeaseSets"]
summary: "Contains all currently authorized Leases for a particular I2P Destination"
---
### The Basics
A Lease-Set contains a set of authorized @leases (and other related information) for a particular @destination.
### In-depth information
A Lease-Set contains:
- all of the currently authorized @leases for a particular @destination
- the public key to which garlic messages can be encrypted (see @garlic-routing)
- the signing public key that can be used to revoke this particular version of the structure
The Lease-Set is one of the two structures stored in the @network-database (the other being @router-info), and is keyed under the SHA256 of the contained @destination.
### Notes
For further details, read @Java-I2P's [LeaseSet](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/how/network-database#leaseSet)
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Lease", "Leases"]
summary: "Authorizes an I2P tunnel to receive messages targeting a destination"
---
### The Basics
A lease defines the authorization for a particular @I2P @tunnel to receive a @messages targeting a @destination.
### In-depth information
For further details, read @Java-I2P's [Lease](https://geti2p.net/spec/common-structures#lease)
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Locally-unique-host"]
summary: "A host defined by you and resolved only by you"
---
### The Basics
A locally-unique host is a [FQDN](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FQDN) defined by **you** and resolved only by you; similar to how a [hosts file](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hosts_(file)) is implemented. Not to be confused with @canonically-unique-host.
### In-depth information
You have the option to share your interpretation of how the host is resolved (e.g., `localhost` always resolves to `127.0.0.1`) but the resolution is not canonically enforced (e.g., someone else can map `localhost` to any arbitrary IP address).
Hosts in a public subscription can be considered @canonically-unique-host's within the @I2P network but, ultimately, you are free to re-define them as you wish.
### Notes
- Monero primarily uses @canonically-unique-host resolution while @I2P only uses @locally-unique-host resolution.
- @I2P's and @Kovri's assigned top-level domain is currently `.i2p` and @Kovri intends to only process/use the `.i2p` [top-level domain](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top_level_domain)
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Message", "Messages"]
summary: "The mechanisms in which information travels within I2P"
---
### The Basics
*Messages* (which exist on top of the @transports layer), contain varying types of information that are needed for the network but, most importantly, everything you see, do, send, or receive, will come and go in the form of *messages*.
There are 2 essential types of *messages* in @I2P:
- @Tunnel messages
- @I2NP messages
Essentially: *@tunnel messages* **contain** @I2NP **message fragments** which are then [reassembled](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/tunnels/implementation) at certain points within a @tunnel's path.
### In-depth information
@I2NP messages have a close relationship with @tunnel @messages so it is easy to get the term *messages* confused when reading @Java-I2P specifications:
>
1. First, the tunnel gateway accumulates a number of I2NP messages and preprocesses them into tunnel messages for delivery.
2. Next, that gateway encrypts that preprocessed data, then forwards it to the first hop.
3. That peer, and subsequent tunnel participants, unwrap a layer of the encryption, verifying that it isn't a duplicate, then forward it on to the next peer.
4. Eventually, the tunnel messages arrive at the endpoint where the I2NP messages originally bundled by the gateway are reassembled and forwarded on as requested.
### Notes
- @I2NP @messages need to be fragmented because they are variable in size (from 0 to almost 64 KB) and @tunnel @messages are fixed-size (approximately 1 KB).
- For details and specifications, visit the [I2NP spec](https://geti2p.net/spec/i2np) and [Tunnel Message spec](https://geti2p.net/spec/tunnel-message)
---
terms: ["mining", "miner", "miners"]
summary: "the process of cryptographically computing a mathematical proof for a block, containing a number of transactions, which is then added to the blockchain"
---
### The Basics
The process of cryptographically computing a mathematical proof for a block, containing a number of transactions, which is then added to the blockchain.
Mining is the distributed process of confirming transactions on the public ledger of all transactions, aka @blockchain. Monero nodes use the blockchain to distinguish legitimate transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere.
Monero is powered strictly by Proof of Work. It employs a mining algorithm that has the potential to be efficiently tasked to billions of existing devices (any modern x86 CPU and many GPUs). Monero uses a variant of CryptoNight Proof of Work (PoW) algorithm, which is designed for use in ordinary CPUs and GPUs.
The smart mining feature allows transparent CPU mining on the user's computer, far from the de facto centralization of mining farms and pool mining, pursuing Satoshi Nakamoto's original vision of a true P2P currency.
---
terms: ["mnemonic-seed", "mnemonic"]
summary: "a 13 or 25 word phrase used to backup a Monero account, available in a number of languages"
---
### The Basics
A 13 or 25 word phrase used to backup a Monero account, available in a number of languages. This 25-word phrase (13 words in the case of MyMonero) has all the information needed to view and spend funds from a Monero @account.
### In-depth Information
In the official wallet, the mnemonic seed comprises 25 words with the last word being used as a checksum. Those words correspond to a 256-bit integer, which is the account's *private* @spend-key. The *private* @view-key is derived by hashing the private spend key with Keccak-256, producing a second 256-bit integer. The corresponding *public* keys are then derived from the private keys.
By storing the 25 word mnemonic key in a secure location, you have a backup of your private keys and hence all of your Moneroj. Sharing this 25 word key is the equivalent of allowing another person complete access to your funds.
It's not a good idea to store more than you want to lose in a "hot wallet" aka a wallet which is currently or has ever been connected to the internet or loaded onto any device that has or may in the future be connected to the internet or any untrusted source!
By creating a cold, or @paper-wallet you can safely store Moneroj.
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["Network-Database"]
summary: "A distributed database which contains needed router information so the network can stay intact"
---
### The Basics
@network-database is a [distributed database](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_database) which contains router information that peers must use so the network can stay intact.
### In-depth information
From @Java-I2P:
>
@I2P's @network-database is a specialized distributed database, containing just two types of data - router contact information (@Router-Infos) and @destination contact information (@LeaseSets). Each piece of data is signed by the appropriate party and verified by anyone who uses or stores it. In addition, the data has liveliness information within it, allowing irrelevant entries to be dropped, newer entries to replace older ones, and protection against certain classes of attack.
>
The @network-database is distributed with a simple technique called "@floodfill", where a subset of all routers, called "@floodfill routers", maintains the distributed database.
### Notes
Read [Network-Database](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/how/network-database) for details.
---
terms: ["node", "nodes", "full-node", "full-nodes"]
summary: "a device on the Internet running the Monero software, with a full copy of the Monero blockchain, actively assisting the Monero network"
---
### The Basics
A device on the Internet running the Monero software, with a full copy of the Monero blockchain, actively assisting the Monero network.
### More Information
Nodes participate in the Monero network and secure @transactions by enforcing the rules of the network. Nodes download the entire @blockchain to know what transactions have taken place. Nodes assist the network by relaying transactions to other nodes on the network. Nodes may also choose to contribute to the Monero network by participating in crafting @blocks (this is called @mining).
Mining is the process by which nodes create a block from the previously accepted block, transactions that are waiting to be processed in the transaction pool, and the @coinbase-transaction. When a node believes it has crafted a valid block it will transmit the completed block to other nodes on the network and those nodes signal agreement by working on the next block in the chain.
The rules that nodes follow are built into the Monero software; When all nodes agree about the rules to follow this is called @consensus. Consensus is necessary for a cryptocurrency because it is how the blockchain is built; If nodes don't agree about which blocks are valid, for example people who have not updated their Monero software, those nodes that don't agree will no longer be able to participate in the Monero network.
The Monero Core Team plans for a network upgrade every 6 months, to occur in October and April of each year. At that time, if you are running a node it must be updated to the most recent version of the Monero software or it will no longer be able to participate in the network.
---
##### Other Resources
<sub>1. *Fluffypony gives a great explanation of why mandatory network upgrades are good for Monero.* ([Monero Missives for the Week of 2016-06-20](https://getmonero.org/2016/06/20/monero-missive-for-the-week-of-2016-06-20.html))</sub>
---
tags: ["kovri"]
terms: ["NTCP"]
summary: "NIO-Based TCP (Non-blocking I/O based TCP): one of two Kovri transports"
---
### The Basics
*NIO-Based TCP (Non-blocking I/O based TCP)* is one of two encrypted @transports for @Kovri.
Similar to @SSU, @NTCP's *primary* purpose is to securely transmit @in-net @I2NP messages through @tunnels but, unlike @SSU, @NTCP functions solely over encrypted [TCP](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_Control_Protocol).
### In-depth information
- Passes along individual @I2NP messages (both Standard and Time Sync) after:
- TCP has been established
- Establishment Sequence has been completed
- Uses the following @encryption:
- 2048-bit [Diffie-Hellman](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffie-hellman)
- [AES-256](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Encryption_Standard)/[CBC](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_cipher_modes_of_operation)
- Establishment Sequence has the following *states*:
- Pre-establishment
- Establishment
- Post-establishment or "Established"
- Uses the following from the @network-database:
- Transport name: NTCP
- Host: IP (IPv4 or IPv6) or host name (shortened IPv6 address (with "::") is allowed)
- Port: 1024 - 65535
### Notes
For further details, read @Java-I2P's [NTCP](https://geti2p.net/en/docs/transport/ntcp)
---
terms: ["OpenAlias"]
summary: "a standard that allows you to use an email or domain syntax to pay someone instead of an address, eg. [email protected] or donate.getmonero.org"
---
### The Basics
The Monero Core Team released a standard called OpenAlias which permits much more human-readable addresses and "squares" the Zooko's triangle. OpenAlias can be used for any cryptocurrency and is already implemented in Monero, Bitcoin (in latest Electrum versions) and HyperStake.
OpenAlias seeks to provide a way to simplify aliasing amidst a rapidly shifting technology climate. Users are trying to cross the bridge to private and cryptographically secure infrastructure and systems, but many of them have just barely started remembering the email addresses of their friends and family.
As part of the ongoing development of the Monero cryptocurrency project, we asked ourselves: how can we simplify payments for users unfamiliar with cryptocurrency? Monero stealth addresses are at least 95 characters long - memorizing them is not an option, and asking someone to send a payment to <95-character-string> is only going to lead to confusion.
At its most basic, OpenAlias is a TXT DNS record on a FQDN (fully qualified domain name). By combining this with DNS-related technologies we have created an aliasing standard that is extensible for developers, intuitive and familiar for users, and can interoperate with both centralized and decentralized domain systems.
A standard that allows you to use an email or domain syntax to pay someone instead of an address, eg. [email protected] or donate.getmonero.org.
More information can be found on the [OpenAlias page](/resources/openalias) or on the [OpenAlias website](https://openalias.org)
---
terms: ["paperwallet", "paperwallets", "paper-wallet", "paper-wallets"]
summary: "A paper wallet stores the information necessary to send and receive Monero"
---
### The Basics
A paper wallet stores the information necessary to send and receive Monero.
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